NOAA Special Publication NOS CO-OPShttps://stag.repository.oceanbestpractices.org/handle/11329/5612021-05-14T03:58:28Z2021-05-14T03:58:28ZTidal analysis and prediction.Parker, Bruce B.https://stag.repository.oceanbestpractices.org/handle/11329/6322019-08-29T10:07:37Z2007-01-01T00:00:00ZTidal analysis and prediction.
Parker, Bruce B.
The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with the knowledge required to carry out the
most accurate tidal analysis and tidal prediction possible using any set of water level or current data
that he or she may have available. The book is also intended to provide the reader with tools to
interpret the analysis results with respect to the hydrodynamics (the physics of the water movement)
of the bay or ocean from which the data were obtained, so that these results can best be used for
particular oceanographic applications. Tidal analysis and prediction involves more than simply
running a harmonic analysis program to obtain tidal harmonic constants and then putting them in
a tidal prediction program. It requires understanding both the astronomical and the hydrodynamic
aspects of the tide. Lack of such an understanding can lead to problems when performing a tidal
analysis. A few examples of such problems are very briefly mentioned below (they are explained
in more detail later in this book, and the technical terms used below are defined in Chapter 2).
It is the astronomy, namely the relative periodic motions of the earth, moon, and sun, that
determines the frequencies at which tidal energy is found. The contribution to the tide by the energy
at each tidal frequency is usually represented by a tidal harmonic constituent, for which there will
be an amplitude and a phase lag. The pairs of amplitudes and phase lags are referred to as harmonic
constants. Which of these tidal constituents can be included in a harmonic analysis depends on the
length of the data times series one has available. The longer the time series the more tidal
constituents that can be included in the analysis and the more accurate the tidal predictions will be.
Attempting to include in the analysis more tidal constituents than can be resolved with the available
length of the time series can lead to erroneous results, or even to no results at all because in such
cases numerical instability can cause the harmonic analysis program to fail ( “blow up”). Even when
the appropriate tidal constituents are included in a harmonic analysis, one must remember that the
energy of the tidal constituents that could not be included in the harmonic analysis (because they
were too close in frequency to other larger tidal constituents) will still affect the constituents that
were included in the analysis. As a result one may see errors, namely, differences between the tide
predictions and the actual water level data, that slowly oscillate in time due to the missing tidal
constituents. Such errors may be significant if one has analyzed only 15 days of data or even 29
days.
It is the hydrodynamics of the ocean and bay that determines how large the tide or tidal current
will be at a particular location, as well as the timing of high and low waters, maximum floods and
ebbs, and slack waters. In shallow water the hydrodynamics becomes nonlinear, distorting the tide
and adding new higher harmonic tidal constituents (overtides) and new tidal constituents within the
semidiurnal tidal band (compound tides), some with the same frequencies as some of the original
astronomically caused tidal constituents. Knowing whether an analyzed constituent is a compound
Tidal Analysis and Prediction
2
tidal constituent or an astronomical tidal constituent (with the same frequency) can make a
difference in the accuracy of the subsequent tide predictions, especially when making predictions
for years other than the year whose data was used for the analysis.
Shallow-water hydrodynamics also causes nonlinear interactions between the tide and nontidal
phenomena such as river flow and wind-produced changes in water level (storm surges) and
currents. For example, high river flow reduces the tide range and distorts the tide curve (modifying
the astronomical tidal constituents and adding additional higher harmonic constituents, the
overtides). And so, if water level data obtained during a time period with high river flow are
analyzed and then tide predictions are made using the harmonic constants derived from those data,
the predicted high waters will be too small throughout the rest of the year. Likewise data obtained
during strong wind events may have tides that are modified by low-frequency storm surge and thus
are not representative of the rest of the year.
In most cases water level or current data are only available at a few distinct locations in a bay
or along a coast. Often some of these locations have data times series that are not long enough to
allow a useful harmonic analysis, so oceanographers developed other ways to extract tidal
information from locations with short data time series. For decades this has been done
nonharmonically, by simply comparing the high and low waters in water level data from the short
stations (usually called subordinate stations, or secondary ports) with the high and low waters in
predictions harmonically derived from longer stations (usually called reference stations, or standard
ports). However, there can be severe limitations on how well this can work, due to the
hydrodynamics of the location where the data were obtained.
Although this book provides some “rules of thumb” for carrying out tidal analysis and
prediction, the intent is to go well beyond this. This book explains not just the “how” but also the
“why”, namely it provides explanations of the astronomical causes of the tide and the hydrodynamic
modifications of the tide, so the reader can determine how to maximize the accuracy of the analysis
results and predictions. This understanding is also important for interpreting the analysis results.
This book explains and illustrates all state-of-the-art tidal analysis and prediction methods
presently in use, as well as the astronomical, hydrodynamic, and statistical theories behind them.
This is not intended to be a complete textbook on tides. The emphasis here is on subjects the reader
must understand in order to carry out accurate tidal analyses and to make skillful tidal predictions.
However, in meeting this objective, the result is a reasonably complete study of the tides (with
references for subjects not covered in detail). The book provides practical operational procedures,
including considerations related to maximum analysis accuracy and maximum prediction skill.
The book is written at an introductory level, so that the reader should need little background in
tidal or oceanographic theory. With an eye toward the teaching aspects of this book, it begins with
a general overview of the subject of tides, so that the reader can first see the big picture. Then as
the material becomes more detailed, the reader will be able to understand that material within a
larger context. Since the astronomical and hydrodynamic aspects of the subject affect each other,
it was felt that such an overview should be given first, rather than simply jumping right into detailed
astronomical theory followed by detailed hydrodynamic theory. Because of this approach, there
may occasionally be some redundancy, as well as frequent references to other sections in the book.
Although this book is written at a level accessible to the nonexpert, it is also hoped that tidal experts
will still find of interest some of the topics that they may not have dealt with themselves.
2007-01-01T00:00:00ZComputational techniques for tidal datums handbook.https://stag.repository.oceanbestpractices.org/handle/11329/6312019-01-08T14:26:37Z2003-01-01T00:00:00ZComputational techniques for tidal datums handbook.
This handbook is intended to provide education and training for both internal and external
audiences to NOAA. It presents the National Ocean Service (NOS) methodology for the
computation of tidal datums and explains how
to use the Center for Operational Oceanographic
Products and Services (CO-OPS) water level data
and bench mark information available on the
internet for tidal datum computations. Fundamental background for tide measurement and data
processing is also reviewed. Detailed descriptions of tidal datum procedures, the background
mathematical formulas, and example spreadsheets are interwoven in the various sections.
The handbook is designed to be both a technical
reference and a guidance document for the
practical determination of tidal datums using tide gauge measurements. It does not present methods
for surveying, or address the problems associated with instrument installation, calibration, data
collection, or quality assurance of water level data. Nor does it present specific algorithms for
computation, or recommend what software packag
es should be used. However, a knowledgeable
coastal engineer or scientist should be able to follow the key steps and arrive at the same results
posted on the CO-OPS website (http://www.tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov).
1.2 Statement of Philosophy
The philosophy of this handbook is that fairly simple, straight-forward examples should be
presented. CO-OPS is confident that coastal engi
neers will be able to compute datums similar to
these “straight-forward” examples using this ma
nual. The emphasis is on education and training,
illustrated by clear real-world examples of tidal datum calculations. By reading this material, coastal
engineers and surveyors will gain an understanding
of how to reduce the data that they may have
collected themselves, and gain necessary skills
to handle more difficult cases. The datum
computational methods described in this handbook
produce valid datums where the tidal conditions
and tide station locations for datum determinati
on are straightforward. Difficult cases should be
referred to CO-OPS for consultation. These cases
might include project areas of rapidly changing
tidal characteristics either temporally or geogr
aphically, measurements collected during extreme
events, cases of poor data, data
records with too many gaps, or poor station coverage. Additional
special cases that may render the methods not applicable include situations where the astronomic
tide is frequently masked by non-tidal effects (such as areas where wind-driven water level
variations dominate and areas affected by river
runoff); and where man-made structures (such as
locks or water gates) affect the water level variations.
1.3 Prerequisite Knowledge
The reader will need to possess
a mathematical understanding of means, standard deviations,
differences, and errors. The reader should posse
ss knowledge of suitable computer software such
as spreadsheet programs, and have an internet
browser and should have some basic scientific
knowledge of tides and water levels, and some know
ledge of the legal and practical significance of
tidal datums (e.g, NOS, 2000).
2003-01-01T00:00:00ZTidal datums and their applications.https://stag.repository.oceanbestpractices.org/handle/11329/6072019-08-29T10:07:30Z2001-01-01T00:00:00ZTidal datums and their applications.
Gill, Stephen K.; Schultz, John R.
The United Nations declared 1998 to be the
International Year of the Ocean. This
declaration provides an opportunity to rais
e public awareness of a fundamental boundary
defined by the intersection of the ocean with th
e land. This intersection is not as simple as
it may seem. It is determined by a plane called
a tidal datum, and refers to an average height
of the water level at particular phases of the
tidal cycle. This vertical reference surface is
derived from water level measurements record
ed along coastlines, estuaries, and tidal rivers
of the United States. Tidal datum planes, refe
renced to a system
of bench marks, are
fundamental to the determination of the spatial coordinates of latitude, longitude, and
elevation relative to mean sea level.
Tidal datums are chiefly used to determine horizontal boundaries, and for estimating
heights or depths. The legal determinations
of private and public lands, state owned tide
lands, state submerged lands, U.S. Navigable wa
ters, U.S. Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone,
and Exclusive Economic Zone, and the High Seas, or international waters, depend on the
determination of tidal datums and their survey
ed intersection with the coast. Navigation in
U.S. Harbors, shipping channels, and intraco
astal waterways requires an accurate knowledge
of the depth of the ocean and submerged hazards
at the low-water phase of the tidal cycle.
Passage underneath bridges requires knowledge of
the clearance at the high water phase of
the tide. In addition, coastal construction
and engineering requires knowledge of the tidal
cycle; significant wave heights, periods, and directions; the heights of storm surges, or
tsunami waves; and, the frequency and horizont
al extent of flooding in the coastal zone.
Organizing these environmental data into mean
ingful, decision-making contexts requires the
establishment of tidal datums, and their reference to the geodetic control network.
Other countries publish tidal datums that ma
y differ significantly from those of the U.S.
In fact, there are hundreds of local datums used
throughout the world. This has led to efforts
to define a global vertical datum. The ellipso
id serves as a suitable candidate because of its
horizontal and vertical accuracy, its relative ease of calculation, and its global accessibility
via GPS. A set of vertical transformation f
unctions are required to translate the vertical
coordinate provided by GPS into a
coordinate referenced to a tidal datum plane. Preliminary
research suggests promising results in the c
onstruction of a seamless vertical reference
system.
This document has been prepared by NOAA’
s Center for Operational Oceanographic
Products and Services Division
to provide background information about tidal datum planes.
The chapters present overviews of the histor
y of tidal datums in the U.S., domestic and
international legal regimes, water level measurement system and bench marks, derived
products available from NOAA, and examples of
the practical and legal applications of tidal
datums.
2001-01-01T00:00:00Z